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Sunday, February 14, 2021

Darn It Yeats, You Had One Job: A Look at the Popular Rewriting of Irish Folklore

 This title is taken from something I often say when talking about the Echtra Nera: "Darn it Nera you had one job". Its a reference to the fact that in the story Nera is given the job of watching his son's cow by his wife and when he falls asleep the cow is 'borrowed' by the Morrigan, resulting in not only the Táin Bó Regamna immediately but ultimately the Táin Bó Cuiligne as well. In other words one small failure on his part of a given duty causes untold misery and bloodshed. 


Yeats grave in Sligo


How does this relate to WB Yeats? As much as I like Yeats poetry, and I do, the blunt fact is his versions of Irish folklore are often more fiction than folklore, and so his 'one job' of accurately relaying folk beliefs in his books about Irish folk beliefs failed as miserably as Nera's assignment watching fairy cows. The result is a popular strain of fairy belief based largely or entirely on Yeats works that do not in fact bare any resemblance to the actual folk beliefs they purport to reflect. I'll give two examples here to illustrate:

The Leannán Sidhe - Leannán sidhe literally means 'Otherworldly lover' referring to one of the aos sidhe that takes a human lover. Yeats wrote about this being in his 1888 'Fairy and Folktales of the Irish Peasantry' where he said this: "The Leanhaun Shee (fairy mistress) seeks the love of mortals. If they refuse, she must be their slave; if they consent, they are hers, and can only escape by finding another to take their place. The fairy lives on their life, and they waste away. Death is no escape from her. She is the Gaelic muse, for she gives inspiration to those she persecutes. The Gaelic poets die young, for she is restless, and will not let them remain long on earth—this malignant phantom." This short description has formed the foundation for the wider modern understanding of this being and is how many people conceptualize them. 
    The problem is, Yeats' characterization is almost entirely his own ideas of the poet's dark muse, popular at the time he was writing, rather than any native Irish idea of what a Leannán Sidhe was. His clear gendering of the being as female is one sign of this, as the term leannán isn't and has never been applied only to women. In point of fact the term can be found going back about a thousand years or so used for any of the aos sidhe who took a human lover - one example is Aoibheall, a queen of the people of the sidhe in Munster. Aoibheall is seen as the protector of the Ó'Brien clan because it is said in stories that she was either the lover of king Brian Boru or possibly his son Murchadh.  Gearóid Ó Crualaoich in his 'Book of the Cailleach' relates an more recent example of a leannán sidhe (male) who was seen gathering herbs with a bean feasa [wise woman] on several occasions. 
    Now we can find both concepts of the leannán sidhe in belief, as illustrated by the definition of leannán in the Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla which encompasses both the straightforward 'fairy lover' (1 e, i) as well as a 'baleful influence' (e, ii) and 'a chronic sickness' (2). 

The Geancánach - probably meaning 'love talker', the Geancánach is most well known from Yeats writing, where he is characterized in 'Fairy and Folktales of the Irish Peasantry' as a solitary being who haunts lonely places smoking his pipe and seducing women who then fade away and die, apparently having lost the will to live. Yeats account which was said to be quoting a direct source, claimed that the Geancánach was 'of the same tribe as the leprechaun' but unlike the leprechaun was the embodiment of 'love and idleness'. This idea of the Geancánach as a seductive and dangerous solitary being has become common, even finding print in Katherine Briggs' book ' A Dictionary of Fairies'.
   What we find in accounts from Irish folklore however, such as those in Duchas.ie are a very different being. In these accounts the Geancánach is described synonymously with the Leprechaun, wearing red and green, smoking a clay pipe, and offering gold or wishes to those who capture him; the term is also used interchangeably with the English word fairy. They have no inherent connection to seduction or the deaths of women, and the dictionary definition of the word to this day means 'a fairy cobbler'. 

Why does this matter anyway? I think its important to understand the various threads of folk belief out there. Yeats stories have been circulating for well over a hundred years and there are many people now who entirely believe them, despite their lack of historicity or deeper cultural veracity. There are also still extant beliefs about the same things Yeats talks about which are entirely different in nature and description and that must be respected rather than argued against based on Yeats. I do think its important to understand the variety and difference and to appreciate that Yeats writing was more his own ideas than actual folk beliefs of the people around him. That doesn't mean to entirely dismiss these versions, as I said they've been around now for over a hundred years and have a lot of modern belief behind them, but we must be clear that those popular versions aren't reflective of older or even necessarily modern Irish folk beliefs. There are complexities and nuances here rooted in Yeats place in his society, his passion for poetry and story, and his willingness to use the bones of Irish folklore for his own purposes that all must be considered as factors for why he is not a reliable source for folklore (and I say that as someone who has used his work as a source previously) and for understanding his writing within its own context. 

Wednesday, February 3, 2021

Resources for Studying the Daoine Maithe

 I've written before about resources, more generally, for studying the Good Neighbours across the Celtic language speaking cultures that acknowledge them and a few years ago I wrote about good resources for Irish paganism specifically. But I don't think I've ever written a list of resources I trust for learning about the Irish Daoine Uaisle in particular so today seems like a good day to tackle that. There is so much out there that's bad quality, fiction put out as folklore, or just plain wrong that I think its especially important for people to know where the good sources are. Below I'll give all the people, books, and sites that I consider trustworthy sources on this topic specifically

People:

  • Eddie Lenihan – a renowned storyteller and also the author of several books, Eddie Lenihan is a great resource for folklore about the Good Folk. His book "Meeting the Othercrowd' in particular, as well as his new Youtube channel and the various other interviews of his available in that site.
  • Lora O’Brien – has a series called 'folklore friday' as part of a wider YouTube channel which often features fairylore and stories of the Irish Othercrowd. Lora also offers several classes through the Irish Pagan School covering the subject.
  • Dr. Jenny Butler – Dr. Butler has several videos on Youtube discussing the Good People, and also offers a class through University College Cork called 'Myth and Magic an Introduction to the Study of Irish Folklore and Mythology' which discusses vital aspects of the Good Folk and the Otherworld. 
  • Michael Fortune – a great resource for Irish folklore, including stories of the Othercrowd. Michael Fortune has a series of youtube interviews he’s done with people around Ireland discussing folklore, beliefs, and practices which includes a series of first and secondhand accounts of people interacting with the Daoine Maithe.
Books: 
  • 'The Banshee' by Patricia Lysaght - the author's dissertation this book is literally everything you could ever want to know about the Bean sidhe
  • 'Meeting the Othercrowd' by Lenihan and Green - mentioned above this book is a collection of stories about the Good Folk.
  • 'Tales of the Wicklow Hills' by Richard Marsh - a collection of stories and legends, as well as anecdotal accounts, from the Wicklow area. Includes accounts of púcaí, fairy trees, and fairy forts. 
  • 'Away With the Fairies' by William Henry - A collection of folktales and folk beliefs from Galway, including various stories of na Uaisle.

Sites:
  •  Ireland’s Folklore and Traditions – excellent blog about traditional Irish beliefs, traditions, and folklore, with a great article about the 'reality of Irish fairies'. 
  • Blúiríní Béaloidis – a podcast about Irish folklore with some excellent discussions of the Good People
  • Circle Stories – a facebook page that features articles discussing Irish folk beliefs, with many great articles about the Othercrowd and Otherworld.
  • Dúchas.ie – a treasure trove of folklore recorded in the early 20th century including many very important stories about the Daoine Maithe. 


So I know I usually tend to seem a bit harsh on fiction but there are several books that deal with the Irish Good People in a creative way that I do like and which I feel stays true to their nature as depicted in folklore. So I'm going to include them here as well to wrap up this article.
Fiction:
  • Ruth Frances Long – this author has several series, but I especially want to highlight the Dubh Linn series which begins with ‘A Crack in Everything‘. It heavily involves the Good Folk, as well as a blend of other folklore and belief. 
  • Peadar Ó'Guilín - this author has a two book series 'The Grey Lands' which looks at an alternate world Ireland which has been cut off from the rest of the globe and is at the mercy of the Othercrowd. 

lone tree on the path to an Ceathrú Chaol


Monday, February 1, 2021

Man Recovered From the Fairies - A Story

 

I was recently asked on my Patreon by one of my patrons if I could translate a modern Irish piece from the school's collection at Duchas.ie. I'm not fluent in modern Irish but offered to give it a try as it is one of the school's pieces that was recorded only as Gaeilge. Its also a very interesting piece, recounting the abduction of a newly married man by the Daoine Maithe and his subsequent recovery by a wise woman and her daughter. 

I am including the original Irish story here as well as my attempt at a translation of it, for anyone else who may find it interesting or useful:

Bhí fear ann fadó agus an lá a phós sé, bhí sé féin agus a bean ag teacht abhaile agus do fuaduigheadh é. Do cuaidh sí ghá lorg agus dubhairt gach aoinne sa deire gur guid na daoine Maithe é.Bhí bean taobh thiar de'n nDaingean go nglaodhís Móirín uirthi agus cuaidh sí siar agus dubhairt Móirín go raibh sí féin ró críonna agus nár bhfhéidir léi siubhal ach go gcuirfeadh sí a h-inghean an aonfacht léi.
Cuaidh inghean Mhóirín an aonfacht léi agus cuardaighdeadar gach lios in Éirinn. Thosnuigheadar ar an gceann badh shia uatha go dtí go dthánghadar go dtí an lios seo go nglaodhtar Lios na Daighche air. Is amhlaidh a bhí an bhean sa lios go raibh an fear aici.Bhí sí ag cíoradh a gruaige nuair a connaiceadar í. Cuir inghean Móirín dhá láimh ar a súile agus cuir sí na ceisteanna seo uirthe.
A Clíona a Clíona,
A bean bínn beasac,
Go mbeannuigidh na
Naoimh duit is Aon Mach Dé,
Is fada an stáirseo do thángna id fheachaint,
Feachaint conus ata agat Seán'ac Séamuis.
No bhfuil ar t-eolus aon oig bhean réidh leis.
Dubhairt Clíona.
An tu Móirín ó iarthar Eireann.
Dubhairt inghean Móirín.
Ní mé, ar sise,ach inghean righ iseadh mé.
Dubhairt Clíona.
Dá mbadh inghean rígh thu do bheadh fáinne óir ar gach méar leat
Dubhairt inghean Móirín.
Caithfidh a tú seacht gcéad sean a fuigheach bhleinfionn.
Agus seacht gcéad gabhar agus iad go léir ar aon dath
Agus seacht gcéad bairlle d'airgead réalach.
Ní raibh sí ábalta ar na seacht gcéad bairlle d'airgead réalach a thabhairt dí agus fuaireadar an fear agus thógadar leó abhaile é.

- source Duchas.ie page 559 found here https://www.duchas.ie/en/cbes/4678409/4678231


There was a man long ago and the day he got married, he and his wife were coming home and he was kidnapped. She went to look for him and everyone said in the end that he was stolen by the Good People. There was a woman in Daingean that they would call, Móirín, and she went back and Móirín said that she was too old and that she couldn't travel alone she would go with her daughter if she was agreeable. Móirín's daughter agreed and they searched every lios [fairy fort] in Ireland. They started at the head of the bay until they came to this lios, which is called Lios na Daighche. The woman in the courtyard was supposed to have the man. She was combing her hair when they saw her. Móirín's daughter placed two hands over her eyes and asked her these questions. "Oh Clíona, oh Clíona, A sweet, beautiful woman, Blessing of the Saints to you and of the One Son of God, It's been a long time since you came to see, See how you have with you Seán son of Séamuis. Or is any young woman known to be ready for it." Clíona said "Are you Móirín from the west of Ireland?" Móirín's daughter said. "I am not," she said, "but the daughter of a king". Clíona said. "If you were a king's daughter you would have a gold ring on each finger" Móirín's daughter said. "You must have yourself seven hundred old-fashioned white wigs (?). And seven hundred goats and all of them of one color And seven hundred barrels of real money." She was unable to give her the seven hundred barrels of real money and they found the man and took him home.